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Threads pools with the Executor Framework

Thread pools manage a pool of worker threads. The thread pools contains a work queue which holds tasks waiting to get executed.
A thread pool can be described as a collection of runnables (work queue) and a connections of running threads. These threads are constantly running and are checking the work query for new work. If there is new work to be done they execute this Runnable. The Thread class itself provides a method, e.g. execute(Runnable r) to add runnables to the work queue.
The Executor framework provides example implementation of the java.util.concurrent.Executor interface, e.g. Executors.newFixedThreadPool(int n) which will create n worker threads. The ExecutorService adds lifecycle methods to the Executor, which allows to shutdown the Executor and to wait for termination.


If you want to use one thread pool with one thread which executes several runnables you can use Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();

Create again the Runnable.

package de.vogella.concurrency.threadpools;

* MyRunnable will count the sum of the number from 1 to the parameter
* countUntil and then write the result to the console.
* <p>
* MyRunnable is the task which will be performed
* @author Lars Vogel

public class MyRunnable implements Runnable {
private final long countUntil;

MyRunnable(long countUntil) {
this.countUntil = countUntil;

public void run() {
long sum = 0;
for (long i = 1; i < countUntil; i++) {
sum += i;

Now you run your runnables with the executor framework.

package de.vogella.concurrency.threadpools;

import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

public class Main {
private static final int NTHREDS = 10;

public static void main(String[] args) {
ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(NTHREDS);
for (int i = 0; i < 500; i++) {
Runnable worker = new MyRunnable(10000000L + i);
// This will make the executor accept no new threads
// and finish all existing threads in the queue
// Wait until all threads are finish
while (!executor.isTerminated()) {

System.out.println("Finished all threads");

In case the threads should return some value (result-bearing threads) then you could use java.util.concurrent.Callable.

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