Posted in Uncategorized

Immutability and Defensive Copies

1. Immutability

The simplest way to avoid problems with concurrency is to share only immutable data between threads. Immutable data is data which can not changed.
To make a class immutable make

  • all its fields final
  • the class declared as final
  • the this reference is not allowed to escape during construction
  • Any fields which refer to mutable data objects are
    • private
    • have no setter method
    • they are never directly returned of otherwise exposed to a caller
    • if they are changed internally in the class this change is not visible and has no effect outside of the class

An immutable class may have some mutable data which is uses to manages its state but from the outside this class nor any attribute of this classes can get changed.
For all mutable fields, e.g. Arrays, that are passed from the outside to the class during the construction phase, the class needs to make a defensive-copy of the elements to make sure that no other object from the outside still can change the data

2. Defensive Copies

You must protected your classes from calling code. Assume that calling code will do its best to change your data in a way you didn’t expect it. While this is especially true in case of immutable data it is also true for non-immutable data which you still not expect that this data is changed outside your class.
To protect your class against that you should copy data you receive and only return copies of data to calling code.
The following example creates a copy of a list (ArrayList) and returns only the copy of the list. This way the client of this class cannot remove elements from the list.

package de.vogella.performance.defensivecopy;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.List;

public class MyDataStructure {
List<String> list = new ArrayList<String>();

public void add(String s) {

* Makes a defensive copy of the List and return it
* This way cannot modify the list itself
* @return List<String>

public List<String> getList() {
return Collections.unmodifiableList(list);

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s